Download E-books The Ruby Programming Language PDF

By David Flanagan, Yukihiro Matsumoto

The Ruby Programming Language is the authoritative consultant to Ruby and gives finished assurance of models 1.8 and 1.9 of the language. It was once written (and illustrated!) via an all-star team:

  • David Flanagan, bestselling writer of programming language "bibles" (including JavaScript: The Definitive Guide and Java in a Nutshell) and committer to the Ruby Subversion repository.
  • Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto, author, fashion designer and lead developer of Ruby and writer of Ruby in a Nutshell, which has been increased and revised to turn into this book.
  • why the fortunate stiff, artist and Ruby programmer extraordinaire.

This ebook starts off with a quick-start instructional to the language, after which explains the language intimately from the ground up: from lexical and syntactic constitution to datatypes to expressions and statements and on via tools, blocks, lambdas, closures, periods and modules.

The booklet additionally features a lengthy and thorough advent to the wealthy API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented instance code -- Ruby's amenities for textual content processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. a complete bankruptcy is dedicated to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities.

The Ruby Programming Language files the Ruby language definitively yet with out the formality of a language specification. it truly is written for skilled programmers who're new to Ruby, and for present Ruby programmers who are looking to problem their realizing and elevate their mastery of the language.

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And ... operators are utilized in a conditional, similar to an if assertion, or in a loop, similar to your time loop (see bankruptcy five for extra approximately conditionals and loops), they don't create diversity gadgets. as a substitute, they carry a different form of Boolean expression referred to as a flip-flop. A flip-flop expression evaluates to real or fake, simply as comparability and equality expressions do. The terribly strange factor a couple of flip-flop expression, even if, is that its worth depends upon the worth of prior reviews. which means a flip-flop expression has nation linked to it; it needs to take note information regarding earlier reviews. since it has kingdom, you are going to anticipate a flip-flop to be an item of a few style. however it isn’t—it’s a Ruby expression, and the Ruby interpreter shops the kingdom (just a unmarried Boolean worth) it calls for in its inner parsed illustration of the expression. four. 6 Operators | 109 With that history in brain, think of the flip-flop within the following code. notice that the 1st .. within the code creates a variety item. the second creates the flip-flop expression: (1.. 10). each one {|x| print x if x==3.. x==5 } The flip-flop comprises Boolean expressions joined with the .. operator, within the context of a conditional or loop. A flip-flop expression is fake until and till the lefthand expression evaluates to actual. as soon as that expression has turn into precise, the expression “flips” right into a continual actual country. It continues to be in that kingdom, and next reviews go back real until eventually the righthand expression evaluates to actual. whilst that occurs, the flip-flop “flops” again to a continual fake nation. next reviews of the expression go back fake until eventually the lefthand expression turns into real back. within the code instance, the flip-flop is evaluated again and again, for values of x from 1 to ten. It starts within the fake nation, and evaluates to fake whilst x is 1 and a pair of. while x==3, the flip-flop flips to precise and returns real. It keeps to come precise whilst x is four and five. while x==5, in spite of the fact that, the flip-flop flops again to fake, and returns fake for the remainder values of x. the result's that this code prints 345. Flip-flops might be written with both .. or .... the adaptation is that once a .. flip-flop flips to actual, it returns precise but additionally checks its righthand expression to work out if it may flop its inner nation again to fake. The ... shape waits for its subsequent overview prior to trying out the righthand expression. ponder those strains: # Prints "3". Flips and flops again while x==3 (1.. 10). each one {|x| print x if x==3.. x>=3 } # Prints "34". Flips whilst x == three and flops whilst x==4 (1.. 10). every one {|x| print x if x==3... x>=3 } # Prints "34" Flip-flops are a pretty imprecise function of Ruby and are most likely top kept away from on your code. they aren't certain to Ruby, even if. Ruby inherits this selection from Perl, which in flip inherits them from the Unix text-processing instruments sed and awk. * Flip-flops have been initially meant for matching the traces of a textual content dossier among a begin trend and an finish development.

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