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By Angeliki E. Laiou, Roy Parviz Mottahedeh

The essays during this quantity display that at the japanese seashores of the Mediterranean there have been wealthy, variegated, and demanding phenomena linked to the Crusades, and complete figuring out of the importance of the circulate and its influence on either the East and West needs to take those phenomena into consideration.

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1911): 172–88; D. Polemis, “Notes at the Eleventh-Century Chronology,” BZ fifty eight (1965): 66–68. 87 Alexander Kazhdan [ ninety three ] much less well-known than those generals was once the “Frank Otton” (Otos), who used to be granted land by means of Nikephoros III; a while later, whilst Otton joined the conspiracy of a undeniable Pounteses, his land was once confiscated. a hundred As for Pounteses, he's pointed out by means of Anna Komnene;101 he's frequently identified as Raoul de Pontoise, a Norman commander who abandoned to the Byzantines quickly after 1082, yet this identification doesn't appear to be legitimate. 102 The move of Norman mercenaries endured lower than Alexios I. in line with Anna, the emperor drawn to his camp Guido (Guy Hauteville), a son of Robert Guiscard (Bohemond’s stepbrother), having promised the Norman funds, honors, and a super marriage. 103 Guido grew to become Alexios’ councillor: in 1098, while the emperor realized that the Crusaders in Antioch have been in a hindrance, he summoned first of all “Guido, Bohemond’s brother. ”104 within the mythical story of Antioch, Guido is gifted as an in depth pal and seneschal of the emperor. one hundred and five The brothers Raoul106 and Roger abandoned to Byzantium ca. 1080. Anna defined the latter as a noble Frank,107 whereas Nicholas Kallikles dedicated to him a poem “On the grave of the sebastos Rogerios. ” in line with this poem, Alexios I conferred upon Roger, who originated “from the Frankish land,”108 “seas of gold,” glory, and a excessive name, in addition to imperial connections (he was once married to a girl from the lineage of the Dalassenoi, concerning the Komnenoi). in all probability he's an analogous individual as Roger, son of Takoupertos (Dagobert), one of many dignitaries who signed the treaty of Devol in 1108. 109 He was once, most likely, the founding father of the NormanoByzantine lineage of the Rogerioi. one hundred ten extra complicated is the facts pertaining to Raoul. Albert of Aachen relates that Rudolf (Raoul? ), “the Wolf’s Skin,” and Rotger (Roger), son of Dagobert, Franks through starting place, served as Alexios I’s envoys in 1096. 111 If Dagobert’s son is, most likely, the abovementioned founding father of the lineage of Rogerioi, a few students think of Rudolf his brother;112 certainly, Roger had a brother Raoul. Albert, even if, doesn't mean that the envoys of 1096 have been brothers. it's also difficult to end up that Humbert, son of Graoul, additionally a signer of the treaty of Devol,113 was once a descendant of Roger’s brother. The Raoul a hundred Actes de Lavra, vol. 1, ed. P. Lemerle, A. Guillou, et al. (Paris, 1970), no. forty five. 9–13 (hereafter Lavra). Alexiad 2:22. 10–29. 102 See objections by means of Marquis de l. a. strength, “Les conseillers,” 161 f, supported via McQueen, “Relations,” 444 f. 103 Alexiad 2:51. 10–12. 104 Histoire anonyme de l. a. premie`re croisade, ed. L. Bre´hier (Paris, 1924), 142. a hundred and five los angeles Chanson d’Antioche (Paris, 1848), 1:79, 89, 2:156. 106 On him, see F. Chalandon, Essai sur le re`gne d’Alexis Ier Comne`ne (Paris, 1900), sixty four and esp. n. 2. 107 Alexiad 3:101. 14. 108 Nicola Callicle, Carmi, ed. R. Romano (Naples, 1980), no. 19. 10. 109 Alexiad 3:138. 28. in this treaty, Ja. N. Ljubarskij and M. M.

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