Download E-books The Chimp and the River: How AIDS Emerged from an African Forest PDF

By David Quammen

In this "frightening and engaging masterpiece" (Walter Isaacson), David Quammen explores the genuine origins of HIV/AIDS.

The genuine tale of AIDS―how it originated with a deadly disease in a chimpanzee, jumped to 1 human, after which contaminated greater than 60 million people―is very diverse from what such a lot people imagine we all know. contemporary learn has published darkish surprises and yielded a considerably new situation of ways AIDS begun and unfold. Excerpted and tailored from the ebook Spillover, with a brand new creation through the writer, Quammen's hair-raising research tracks the virus from chimp populations within the jungles of southeastern Cameroon to laboratories around the globe, as he unravels the mysteries of while, the place, and below what situations the sort of consequential "spillover" can occur. An audacious look for solutions amid greater than a century of knowledge, The Chimp and the River tells the haunting story of 1 of the main devastating pandemics of our time.

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A difficult undertaking field,” in accordance with one Swedish missionary: Martin (2002), 20, 25. 70. as a result of colonial regulations that discouraged married males: Pepin (2011), 70–73. the remainder of this paragraph, and the subsequent: Pepin (2011). seventy one. a full of life marketplace in smoked fish: Harms (1981), 229. seventy one. Ivory, rubber, and slaves have been traded there: Harms (1981), 227–229. seventy two. by way of 1940, its inhabitants had edged up: Chitnis et al. (2000), 6. seventy four. apes, elephants, lions, and some different species have been secure: natural world Justice, No. 2 (May 2006), eight. seventy four. Drori gave me a LAGA e-newsletter: natural world Justice, No. four (November 2006). seventy four. Drori’s publication pointed out a raid: flora and fauna Justice, No. four (November 2006), five. seventy five. one other bust, opposed to a broker: flora and fauna Justice, No. four (November 2006), five; flora and fauna Justice, No. 2 (May 2006), 2, 12. seventy six. a motive force unloading chimpanzee legs and arms: Peterson (2003), forty six, 159. seventy six. approximately five million metric hundreds bushmeat: Peterson (2003), sixty five. eighty. the place Karl Amman observed chimpanzee palms stashed: Peterson (2003), forty six. eighty. Chimp fecal samples from hereabouts: Keele et al. (2006), 525. eighty four. in all likelihood of the Mpiemu or the Kako: Giles-Vernick (2002), 22. ninety four. A research of bushmeat site visitors in and round Ouesso: this sentence and the remainder of the paragraph: Hennessey and Rogers (2008), 179–183. 109. the present effect was once that it’s risk free in chimpanzees: e. g. , Novembre et al. (1997), 11748, 11752. 109. while a unmarried lab chimpanzee did development to AIDS: Novembre et al. (1997), 4086. one hundred ten. “survived their very own AIDS-like pandemic”: Cohen (2002), 15. Cohen used to be reporting on de Groot et al. (2002). one hundred ten. a certainly taking place an infection in additional than 40 various species: Sharp and Hahn (2010), 2487. a hundred and ten. it hasn’t proven up between wild monkeys in both Asia: Sharp and Hahn (2010), 2487. a hundred and ten. none of these SIVs turns out to reason immunodeficiency: Sharp and Hahn (2010), 2490. a hundred and ten. an in depth similarity among their respective SIVs: Sharp et al. (2005), 3893. 111. That size of time might permit divergence: Sharp et al. (2005), 3893. 111. spotted that SIVcpz seems a hybrid virus: Bailes et al. (2003), 1713. 111. almost certainly simply countless numbers of years in the past: Wertheim and Worobey (2009), 5–6; Pepin (2011), forty-one, bringing up Wertheim and Worobey (2009). 112. What the Nottingham staff advised: Bailes (2003), 1713. 124. those all got here jointly in a paper: Keele et al. (2009), 515. 126. a sequence of well-intended campaigns: Pepin (2011), 117; Pepin and Labbé (2008). 127. 2 million syringes have been produced globally in 1930: Drucker et al. (2001), 1989. See additionally Marx et al. (2001), 914. 127. taken care of 5,347 trypanosomiasis circumstances: Pepin (2011), 122, 163. 127. “The Congo comprises numerous overall healthiness institutions”: Beheyt (1953), quoted in Pepin (2011), 164. 128. “The huge variety of patients”: Beheyt (1953), quoted in Pepin (2011), 164. 128. played 207,089 injections of tryparsamide: this sentence and the remainder of the paragraph: Pepin (2011), 125–128. 128. doubt that needles have been important in one of these approach: Worobey (2008), in Volberding et al. (2008), 18. 129. It dates again greater than a decade: Marx et al.

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