By Robin Waterfield
The Romans first set army foot on Greek soil in 229 BCE; in simple terms sixty or so years later it used to be far and wide, and soon thereafter Greece grew to become one of many first provinces of the rising Roman Empire. It used to be an immense trip - a quick, brutal, and made up our minds conquest of the land to whose paintings, philosophy, and tradition the Romans owed lots.
Rome discovered the japanese Mediterranean divided, in an risky stability of energy, among 3 nice kingdoms - the 3 Hellenistic kingdoms that had survived and flourished after the wars of Alexander the Great's Successors: Macedon, Egypt, and Syria. inner issues took Egypt roughly out of the image, however the different have been decreased by way of Rome. Having tested itself, via its defeat of Carthage, because the sole superpower within the western Mediterranean, Rome then systematically went about
doing an identical within the east, until eventually the complete Mediterranean was once below her keep an eye on.
Apart from the exciting army motion, the tale of the Roman conquest of Greece is relevant to the tale of Rome itself and the empire it created. As Robin Waterfield indicates, the Romans built a hugely refined approach to dominance by way of handheld remote control over the Greeks of the jap Mediterranean - the inexpensive alternative of utilizing authority and international relations to maintain order instead of status armies. And it's a tale that increases a couple of interesting questions about Rome, her empire, and her
civilization. for example, to what quantity used to be the Roman conquest a deliberate and planned coverage? What used to be it approximately Roman tradition that gave it one of these will for conquest? And what was once the influence on Roman highbrow and creative tradition, on their very id, in their entanglement with an older Greek
civilization, which the Romans themselves well-known as excellent?
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Extra resources for Taken at the Flood: The Roman Conquest of Greece (Ancient Warfare and Civilization)
This crusade of Teuta’s in 229 used to be now not, or not only, expansionist aggression. In 230, as we've seen, the folk of Issa had appealed to Rome for aid. To whom else may possibly they flip? They have been surrounded via enemies; the Aetolians and Achaeans had simply been overwhelmed via the Illyrians; the Macedonians had simply misplaced one among their most crucial outlying districts, Paeonia, to a Dardanian invasion, and their king to inopportune disorder. Their new king, Philip V, used to be not more than a boy, who wanted a regent. (In that, the Macedonians have been fortunate, simply because Philip received the very useful Antigonus Doson, who quickly grew to become king. yet on the time he had his palms complete attempting to recuperate Paeonia. ) the 2 nice powers at the moment in Greece, the Macedonians and the Aetolian–Achaean alliance, have been for that reason out of the image, so the Issaeans became to the closest recognized energy, the Romans. Their charm was once most likely mediated by way of Hiero II, king of Sicilian Syracuse. Issa used to be a Syracusan starting place and retained robust hyperlinks with the mum urban, and Hiero used to be at present certainly one of Rome’s most crucial allies. the result of the allure used to be the professional stopover at of the Coruncanius brothers, and after that fiasco Teuta knew the Romans have been coming. Her strikes within the early a part of 229 have been for this reason shielding, designed to safe the touchdown areas that weren't but lower than her regulate. Pharos and Corcyra have been hers, Epidamnus and Issa have been lower than siege, and if she may perhaps get Apollonia in addition, that might stitch up a pleasant little area and make it demanding for the Romans to land a strength at any place within sight. the arrival OF ROME The assembly among Queen Teuta and the Coruncanius brothers climaxed with the more youthful Coruncanius’s danger. even supposing this used to be brought within the warmth of the instant, it was once in actual fact intended to be a reputable threat—one that conformed not just to no matter what picture Teuta had of Rome, but in addition to the picture Coruncanius himself had of Rome at this second in background, the Rome he used to be representing. He should have recognized 10 Rome Turns East that his and his brother’s project might have the backing of the Roman military if wanted. He should have recognized that Roman curiosity in a zone may simply be a prelude to armed intervention. Rome were demonstrating its aggression and belligerence for the earlier 200 years. during the 5th century, the town got here to dominate its instant acquaintances in Italy. 7 by way of the tip of the 1st decade of the 3rd century, a lot of relevant and northern Italy was once in Roman arms. the recent territories have been secured through assisting the dominance of neighborhood elites, and by way of planting colonies of Roman electorate (nineteen through the 12 months 290), which repressed the population by way of the easy expedient of depriving them of a few in their land. within the some distance north of contemporary Italy, Celtic tribes occupied the fertile Po valley from southern France to the top of the Adriatic, and within the south common Greek settlements and local tribes lived uneasily part by side. missing the executive equipment to manipulate its turning out to be Italian empire without delay, the Romans built a distinct approach wherein they left conquered towns unfastened to manipulate themselves, in go back for alliances (which got here in a number of varieties, yet continuously asserted or affirmed Roman dominance), sponsored up by way of wholesale can provide of Roman citizenship rights in a variety of levels.