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Explores the impression of Sufism on 19th- and early twentieth-century writers.

This e-book unearths the wealthy, yet normally unknown, effect of Sufism on 19th- and early twentieth-century American literature. the interpretation of Persian poets comparable to Hafiz and Sa’di into English and the continuing approval for Omar Khayyam provided interesting new non secular views to a couple of the most important American literary figures. As editor Mehdi Aminrazavi notes, those Sufi impacts have frequently been subsumed right into a suggestion of “Eastern,” mainly Indian, notion and never stated as having Islamic roots. This paintings can pay significant consciousness to giants of yankee literature, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Walt Whitman, who stumbled on a lot concept from the Sufi rules they encountered. different canonical figures also are mentioned, together with Mark Twain, Herman Melville, Henry David Thoreau, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, besides literary contemporaries who are lesser identified this day, resembling Paschal Beverly Randolph, Thomas Lake Harris, and Lawrence Oliphant.

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H. Abdel Kader, The lifestyles, character and Writings of al-Junayd (London 1962), fifty five. mentioned by way of M. A. H. Ansari, “The Doctrine of 1 Actor: Junayd’s View of Tawhid,” within the Muslim global (1983), p. forty five. eighty five. A severe version of the Divan of Muhammad Shirin Maghribi, edited within the unique Persian by way of Leonard Lewisohn with notes and an creation through Annemarie Schimmel (Tehran: Tehran collage Press; London: SOAS guides 1993), Ghazal CXV. Translation mine. 86. Gulshan-i raz, for an research of those verses and the doctrine of the infidel selfhood in Sufism, see my past religion, pp. 295–98. 87. Milton, I. 14: 22–24, in Blake: whole Writings, p. 495. mentioning those comparable verses by way of Blake in his article on “Intellectual Fraternity,” which in comparison Shakespeare with Indian philosophies, Ananda Coomaraswamy reviews that “it is critical that you possibly can no longer locate in Asiatic scripture a extra normally Asiatic objective than is published in his [Blake’s] passionate will to be brought from the bondage of department. ” The Dance of Shiva (New York: Sunwise flip, Inc. 1924), p. 113. 88. For an outline of the concept that of fana’ in Sufism, see Leonard Lewisohn, “In Quest of Annihilation: Imaginalization and Mystical demise within the Tamhidat of ‘Ayn al-Qudat Hamadani,” in L. Lewisohn (ed. ) The background of Sufism, vol. I: Classical Persian Sufism from its Origins to Rumi (700–1300) (Oxford: Oneworld 1999), pp. 284–336. See additionally G. Böwering, “Baqa’ wa Fana’,” in Encyclopedia Iranica, III, pp. 722–24. English Romantics and Persian Sufi Poets forty nine  89. Milton, II. 38: 35–42, 48–49, in Blake: entire Writings, p. 530. ninety. Mathnawi, IV: 398–99. ninety one. Mathnawi, V: 796, 798. ninety two. Mathnawi, V: 551–52. ninety three. Adonais, LII–LIII, in Shelley, entire Poems, p. 316. Tracing the doctrine of this poem again to Plato, Notopoulos paraphrases those strains as follows: “Mortality is just an phantasm like any the phenomena of nature; it is just in loss of life that we actually dwell and the soul unearths its precise domestic within the Platonic fact above and past the actual global” (The Platonism of Shelley, p. 291). He additionally issues out (ibid. , p. 301) that those verses are modelled in this passage (68b) in Plato’s Phaedo; “Surely, there are various who've selected in their personal unfastened will to persist with lifeless fans and other halves and sons to the following international, within the wish of seeing them and assembly there the people whom they enjoyed. if that is so, will a real lover of knowledge who has firmly grasped this related conviction—that he'll by no means reach to knowledge necessary of the identify in different places than within the subsequent world—will he be grieved at death? Will he now not be pleased to make that trip? We needs to believe so, expensive boy, that's, if he's a true thinker, simply because he'll be of establishment trust that he'll by no means locate knowledge in all its purity in the other position” (trans. from Plato: The amassed Dialogues, p. 50). ninety four. Marsilio Ficino, observation on Plato’s Symposium on Love, tr. Sears Jayne (Woodstock, Conn. : Spring courses 1985), VI. 10, pp. 125ff. ninety five. Jill Line, Shakespeare and the hearth of affection (London: Shepheard-Walwyn 2004), pp.

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