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By David Lewin

Hailed via the New Grove Dictionary of tune (2nd variation) as "the most unique and far-ranging theorist of his generation," David Lewin (1933-2003) explored for over 4 many years how composers within the German culture set poetry and drama to tune. He conceived Studies in track with Text as a unified assortment, reproducing papers on track by means of Mozart, Schubert, Wagner, Schoenberg, and Babbitt, a lot of that have develop into classics within the fields of track thought and historic musicology. He additionally incorporated new analytical essays on Mozart, Wagner, and Schubert, and supplied clean readings of chosen songs through Clara Schumann, Robert Schumann, and Johannes Brahms.
The analyses amassed right here concentrate on how the tune, from its small info to its huge formal schemes, engages the poetic and dramatic dynamics of the works to hand, and the way track and textual content enact one another reciprocally. A recurrent subject is the theatricality of texted tune for the live performance in addition to operatic degree, and Lewin's views provide many interpretive insights and conceptual views for the musical performer. A methodological eclectic, Lewin cultivated a magisterial command of ancient theories and suggestion deeply approximately how these theories may tell modern realizing. Analytical types through Zarlino, Schenker, Riemann, Rameau, and Babbitt are introduced into play, and the diversity of poetic and dramatic questions that emerge are explored, touching on inter alia mental and social identification, the relation of mental internal worlds to out of the ordinary truth, and the narrowly biographical and commonly historic stipulations of creative construction. because it illuminates the richness and profundity of the language/music partnership, Studies in tune with textual content offers incisive pondering the scope--and limitations--of descriptive and analytical discourse approximately music.

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Due to those positive factors, the singer’s excessive C in degree 14 can't sign the start of a practical a-minor Urlinie for Auf einer Burg (or for the pair AeB-plus-IdF). there isn't sufficient a-minor root help for such an research. On instance nine. 1(a), the harmonic development of the fourth, fifth, and 6th quarter-notes tasks a contrapuntal 5–6 over a C continuo bass, via a D root bass. 12. deepest correspondence, following the recent Haven assembly of 1983, brought up in be aware three. 176 half III The Schumanns on the finish of Auf einer Burg, i don't are looking to listen the sooner song’s voice-leading and harmonic constitution purely as a initial for In der Fremde. Such uncertainties are good captured, to my ear, once we enquire of instance nine. 1(e), in what methods is that this an entire Phrygian piece? And in what methods is it a dominant for a few a-minor tonic to come back? right here, it sort of feels necessary to me that we don't ask: “Is this a whole Phrygian piece? Or is it a dominant for a few a-minor tonic to come back? ” I touched at the methodological element previous, in reference to Anfangs wollt’ ich. If we call for that instance nine. 1(e) venture both a whole Phrygian piece, or an incomplete tonal piece, yet no longer a few tertium quid, then i think we aren't doing justice to the sensations with which we're left on the finish of Auf einer Burg. whereas as regards to motivic enlargement, we must always observe the motivic point of the final cadence within the bass line, that is really robust on the finish of the second one strophe: beginning on the A in degree 35, the bass then proceeds to D, then to F, then to E. The melodic figure A–D–F–E, starting with the fifth-leap down from A to D, sounds to my ear as a pertinently transposed rhythmically augmented—and differently rhythmically transformed—permutation of the Kopfmotiv B–E–F –G. The “d-minor” transpositional point, A–D–E–F, is gesturally pertinent to the education for a Phrygian cadence. previous (in be aware 10) I promised to debate why it really is complicated to claim a Kopfton for any Schenkerian a-minor Ursatz inside Auf einer Burg itself. observe eleven, in addition to pertinent dialogue of instance nine. 1(a) and (b), mentioned why it might be difficult to say the singer’s excessive C of degree 14 as any such Kopfton. in the strophe itself, no different candidate comes under consideration. There is still the a-minor fabric in the piano interlude. One may well, for instance, try and assert the piano’s C of degree 21 as this sort of Kopfton, or perhaps the piano’s excessive E of measures 18–19, which may then conceivably be picked up by means of the singer’s excessive E on the establishing of In der Fremde. these kinds of applicants have stable a-minor neighborhood root help. prior to all else, I should still say that any try and find a useful a-minor Kopfton in the piano interlude of Auf einer Burg slips by means of my Phrygian Ursatz as disregarded because the bride slips earlier the statue. I asserted my Ursatz as an Ursatz for the strophe, now not for the music as an entire (including the piano interlude). That acknowledged, I should still voice a few ache on the dramatic proposal of an Ursatz that starts off in the course of the specified four measures, midway in the course of the track, the place the singer isn't singing—all the extra so simply because these four measures shape an interlude among musically parallel strophes.

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