A special learn of the Hebrew of the lifeless Sea Scrolls
In Qumran Hebrew, Reymond examines the orthography, phonology, and morphology of the lifeless Sea Scrolls. brief sections deal with particular linguistic phenomena and current a synopsis and critique of past examine. Reymond's method emphasizes difficulties posed by way of scribal error and argues that guttural letters had now not all weakened yet in its place have been susceptible in particular linguistic environments, texts, or dialects. Reymond illustrates that yes phonetic shifts (such because the shift of yodh to aleph and the other shift of aleph to yodh) take place in discernible linguistic contexts that recommend this was once a true phonetic phenomenon.
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Additional resources for Qumran Hebrew: An Overview of Orthography, Phonology, and Morphology (Resources for Biblical Study)
Observe that the aleph is especially broken; see Patrick W. Skehan, Eugene Ulrich, Peter Flint, “Psalms,” DJD 16:58. 168. The haphel and aphel are either found in Biblical Aramaic and the Aramaic of the DSS, and conceivably those version types prompt to the scribes of 1QS and 1QIsaa an identical version for Hebrew. notice additionally the potential instance of ( ואסיג1QIsaa at Isa 59:14 for MT “ וְ ֻה ַסּגit could be grew to become back”); the scroll’s note may mirror both “he will flip again” or “I will flip again. ” impression from different Aramaic phrases comprise אנה אנוכיat Isa 8:18 for MT אדס ; ִהנֵּ ה ָאנ ִֹכיat Isa 55:13 for MT ֲה ַדס. different purposes for the confusion contain a special realizing of the passage (e. g. , “ אסירI will flip apart” at Isa 5:5 for MT “ ָה ֵסרturning aside”). 169. Muraoka, GQA, 14. a hundred and seventy. Qimron, Grammar, 83–85. 171. Confusion of the 2 consonants, aleph and heh, is additionally present in the MT, in particular in names: ֲאד ָֹרםin 1 Chr 10:18 for ֲהד ָֹרםin 1 Kgs 12:18; ַה ֲה ָר ִריin 1 Chr 11:35 for אר ִרי ָ ָהin 2 Sam 23:33; and ֵהיְךin 1 Chr 13:12 for ֵאיְךin 2 Sam 6:9. For those, PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY one hundred and five ( — הברכנו1QS X, 6 for “ אברכנוI will bless him”) ( — הבחרה1QS X, 12 for “ אבחרהI will choose”)172 even if Kutscher lists different situations of this phenomenon in 1QIsaa, all may be attributed to different components, or, a minimum of, to situations that will have considerably contributed to the confusion among laryngeals. the criteria are: the trouble of the unique phrases (e. g. , “ הדשthoroughly [trampling]” the hiphil infinitive absolute of דושׁfollowed via qal imperfect of דושׁ, at Isa 28:28 for MT “ ָאדוֹשׁtrample,” that is an extraordinary qal infinitive absolute of “ הכינכה ;דושׁhe tested you [with a name],” hiphil of כון, at Isa 45:4 for MT “ ֲא ַכנְּ ָךI named you [your name]”; הוררט “Horarat (? )” at Isa 37:38 for MT “ ֲא ָר ָרטArarat”); a separate realizing of the be aware or passage, two times the place 1QIsaa introduces a syntax with infinitives extra universal to DSS Hebrew (e. g. , [“ השיבmy hand] turned,” hiphil ָ “ העד ; ָא ִשׁmake testify,” hiphil primary, infinitive, at Isa 1:25 for MT יבה at Isa 8:2 for MT “ הנשא ; ָא ִﬠ ָידהto be lifted,” niphal infinitive, maybe as a result of dittography, at Isa 33:10 for MT ) ֶאנָּ ֵשׂא, or the impression of Aramaic ָ “ הכן ; ֵאindeed” at Isa phrases (e. g. , “ היכהalas” at Isa 1:21, 14:12 for MT יכה 40:7 for MT ) ָא ֵכן. 173 one other attainable instance from one other scroll is ויהיר in 4Q381 1, five for what could be “ ויאירhe will mild up,” notwithstanding ויהירmay even be the hiphil of “ נהרhe will make shine. ”174 in any case, in view that different components may have contributed considerably to the confusion, one should still see Alexander Sperber, “Hebrew dependent Upon Biblical Passages in Parallel Transmission,” HUCA 14 (1939): 161. As for the second one instance, word that confusion at the a part of the Chronicler could have been occasioned by way of the incidence of ההרריearlier in 1 Sam 23:33.