Download E-books Integrative Medical Biochemistry: Examination and Board Review PDF

By Michael W. King

Essential for USMLE Step 1 evaluation!

A rigorous full-color evaluate for any form of biochemistry or scientific biochemistry examination!

Integrative clinical Biochemistry exam and Board Review is a quick and potent method so you might arrange for normal path examinations in biochemistry and scientific biochemistry, in addition to clinical board checks and the USMLE Step 1. a special characteristic of this overview is the mixing of clinical biochemistry with body structure, pathophysiology, pathology, and anatomy, making it excellent for modern-day quickly altering clinical institution curriculum. Integrative scientific Biochemistry exam and Board Review is logically divided into 4 sections:

  • Section 1 covers the fundamentals of the foremost construction blocks of all cells and tissues
  • Section 2 discusses metabolic biochemistry with a robust emphasis on scientific correlations and scientific problems with regards to those all very important pathways
  • Section 2 experiences the mobile and Molecular Biology themes linked to clinical biochemistry, body structure, and pathology
  • Section four comprises 10 chapters with high-yield integrative themes of price not just to clinical scholars, yet to all scholars of the discipline

Packed with precious studying aids:

  • 1,100 multiple-choice questions, half that are USMLE Step 1 kind
  • Thorough causes for every resolution
  • 350 full-color illustrations
  • Every bankruptcy includes:
    • An define directory the most important subject matters coated
    • A record of high-yield phrases with regards to the content material
    • Numerous explanatory figures and tables designed to extend your knowing of must-know fabric
    • A list that recaps vital and high-yield concepts
  • Most chapters contain distinct medical packing containers that current high-yield info touching on ailments and problems with regards to defects within the pathways being discussed

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McGraw-Hill schooling has no accountability for the content material of any details accessed during the paintings. by no means shall McGraw-Hill schooling and/or its licensors be accountable for any oblique, incidental, targeted, punitive, consequential or related damages that outcome from using or lack of ability to exploit the paintings, no matter if any of them has been urged of the opportunity of such damages. This issue of legal responsibility shall observe to any declare or reason whatever no matter if such declare or reason arises in agreement, tort or in a different way. Contents bankruptcy five Preface xv Protein constitution and serve as I organic construction Blocks of Cells and Tissues bankruptcy 1 Amino Acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids 1 Amino Acids: development Blocks for Protein 2 organic construction Blocks: Carbohydrates 8 Carbohydrate constitution and Nomenclature nine Monosaccharides 10 Disaccharides 12 Polysaccharides 12 bankruptcy four Nucleoside and Nucleotide constitution and Nomenclature 25 Nucleotide Derivatives 27 Nucleotide Derivatives in tRNAs 27 man made Nucleotide Analogs 28 Polynucleotides 28 bankruptcy 6 Hemoglobin and Myoglobin 17 significant Roles of organic Lipids 18 Fatty Acids 18 Phospholipids 20 Nucleic Acids scientific field 5-1 Connective Tissue problems 36 forty two Myoglobin forty three Hemoglobin forty three Oxygen-Binding features forty three function of 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate forty five The Hemoglobin Genes forty six The Hemoglobinopathies forty seven bankruptcy three Lipids of organic value basic constitution in Proteins 32 Secondary constitution in Proteins 32 Super-Secondary constitution 33 Tertiary constitution of Proteins 33 Forces Controlling Protein constitution 33 Quaternary constitution 34 significant Protein varieties 35 Collagens 35 bankruptcy 2 31 24 medical field 6-1 Sickle mobilephone Anemia forty seven scientific field 6-2 The Thalassemias forty eight bankruptcy 7 organic Membranes and Membrane shipping fifty four Composition and constitution of organic Membranes fifty five actions of organic Membranes fifty six Membrane Channels fifty eight v vi Contents Membrane Transporters fifty nine Enzymes as organic Catalysts 104 Michaelis-Menten Kinetics a hundred and five Inhibition of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions 106 rules of Enzyme task 108 Allosteric Enzymes 109 Enzymes within the analysis of Pathology 109 medical field 7-1 Transporter Defects And ailment 60 The ABC family members of Transporters sixty two The Solute provider family members of Transporters sixty two scientific field 7-2 Cardiotonic Steroids sixty two medical field 7-3 Cystinuria sixty four II bankruptcy 10 Carbohydrates: Glycolysis and Glucose Homeostasis Metabolic Biochemistry bankruptcy eight nutrients seventy one Water-Soluble supplements seventy two medical field 8-1 Thiamin Deficiency seventy two scientific field 8-2 B12 Deficiency and Anemia seventy eight scientific field 8-5 diet A Deficiency and Blindness eighty three scientific field 8-6 nutrition D Deficiency eighty three medical field 10-1 Glycolysis in melanoma: The Warburg impression 126 scientific field 10-2 Erythrocyte PK Deficiency 129 bankruptcy eleven Carbohydrates: Fructose Metabolism and Feeding Behaviors 139 Fat-Soluble supplementations eighty scientific field 8-4 Scurvy eighty significance of Glycolysis one hundred twenty Digestion and Uptake of nutritional Carbohydrate a hundred and twenty Glucose Uptake and the position of Sugar Transporters a hundred and twenty The Pathway of Glycolysis 121 the person Reactions of Glycolysis 121 Anaerobic Glycolysis 123 internet power Yield from Glycolysis 124 Lactate Metabolism 124 legislation of Glycolysis a hundred twenty five function of the Kidney in Blood Glucose keep watch over 131 medical field 8-3 Folate Deficiency and Anemia seventy eight nutritional Fructose a hundred and forty Activation of Fructose a hundred and forty access of Fructose into Glycolysis one hundred forty Fructose intake and Feeding Behaviors one hundred forty Metabolic Disruption With Fructose intake 142 issues of Fructose Metabolism 143 Minerals 87 bankruptcy nine Enzymes and Enzyme Kinetics Enzyme Classifications 102 position of Coenzymes 102 Enzyme Relative to Substrate variety 103 Enzyme-Substrate Interactions 103 Chemical Reactions and premiums 103 Chemical response Order 104 119 one hundred and one medical field 11-1 Hereditary Fructose Intolerance 143 bankruptcy 12 Carbohydrates: Galactose Metabolism 147 nutritional Galactose 148 access of Galactose Into Glycolysis 148 problems of Galactose Metabolism 148 Contents TCA Cycle Stoichiometry 199 rules of the TCA Cycle 199 TCA Cycle Involvement in total Metabolism 201 medical field 12-1 Galactosemias 149 bankruptcy thirteen Carbohydrates: Gluconeogenesis, the Synthesis of recent Glucose 152 severe skip Reactions of Gluconeogenesis 153 Substrates for Gluconeogenesis a hundred and fifty five Intestinal Gluconeogenesis: Glucose Homeostasis and regulate of Feeding habit 156 position of Renal Gluconeogenesis 158 law of Gluconeogenesis 158 bankruptcy 14 Carbohydrates: Glycogen Metabolism 164 Glycogen Composition one hundred sixty five Glycogen Synthesis (Glycogenesis) a hundred sixty five legislation of Glycogen Synthesis one hundred sixty five Glycogenolysis 168 rules of Glycogenolysis 169 Glycogen garage illnesses a hundred and seventy medical field 14-1 von Gierke ailment 172 medical field 14-2 Pompe disorder 174 medical field 14-3 McArdle sickness one hundred seventy five bankruptcy 17 Mitochondrial services and Oxidative Phosphorylation 205 Mitochondria 206 rules of Reduction/Oxidation (Redox) Reactions 206 power from Cytosolic NADH 207 Complexes of the Electron delivery Chain 207 rules of Oxidative Phosphorylation 211 Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation 212 iteration of Reactive Oxygen Species 213 Mitochondrial disorder in variety 2 Diabetes and weight problems 214 Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies 215 Brown Adipose Tissue and warmth iteration 215 different organic Oxidations 217 bankruptcy 18 Ethanol Metabolism 225 Ethanol-Metabolizing Pathways 226 Enzymes of Ethanol Metabolism: ADHs 226 Enzymes of Ethanol Metabolism: ALDHs 226 Microsomal Ethanol Oxidation approach 228 Ethanol Metabolism and Alcoholism 229 Acute and persistent results of Ethanol Metabolism 229 bankruptcy 19 bankruptcy 15 Carbohydrates: Pentose Phosphate Pathway vii Lipids: Fatty Acid Synthesis 235 The function of the PPP within the Erythrocyte one hundred ninety De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis 236 beginning of Cytoplasmic Acetyl-CoA 236 ATP-Citrate Lyase: position in Epigenetics 236 legislation of Fatty Acid Synthesis 237 ChREBP: grasp Lipid Regulator within the Liver 239 Elongation and Desaturation 240 Synthesis of Biologically lively Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 241 organic actions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 PUFAs 243 bankruptcy sixteen bankruptcy 20 185 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway 186 Reactions of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway 186 The PPP and the keep an eye on of Oxidative rigidity 189 medical field 15-1 continual Granulomatous affliction 189 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase complicated and the TCA Cycle Oxidative Decarboxylation of Pyruvate 195 The Pyruvate Dehydrogenase advanced 195 legislation of the PDH complicated 195 194 Lipids: Triglyceride and Phospholipid Synthesis Synthesis of Triglycerides 248 Lipin Genes: Triglyceride Synthesis and Transcriptional law 248 247 viii Contents Phospholipid Synthesis 248 Plasmalogens 252 Lysophospholipids 288 Lysophosphatidic Acid 288 Lysophosphatidylinositol 288 bankruptcy 21 Lipids: Sphingolipids, Ceramides, and Glycosphingolipids bankruptcy 24 255 Synthesis of Sphingosine and the Ceramides 256 scientific field 21-1 Farber Lipogranulomatosis 257 Sphingomyelin Synthesis 257 Metabolism of the Sphingomyelins 258 Metabolism of the Ceramides 258 Ceramides and Insulin Resistance 258 medical field 21-4 Tay-Sachs ailment 264 Lipoxins 292 actions of the Lipoxins 293 activities of Aspirin through Lipid Modulators of irritation 294 activities of the Resolvins and Protectins 294 Lipids: Lipolysis, Fatty Acid Oxidation, and Ketogenesis bankruptcy 22 Lipids: The Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Thromboxanes 273 medical field 25-1 Carnitine-Related Abnormalities 306 medical field 25-2 Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency 307 creation to the Eicosanoids 274 Arachidonic Acid Synthesis 275 Synthesis of Prostaglandins and Thromboxanes: The Cyclic Pathway 275 organic actions of the most important Eicosanoids 275 Peroxisomal (a) `-Oxidation Pathway 307 Peroxisomal a-Oxidation Reactions 308 bankruptcy 23 Microsomal v-Oxidation Reactions 311 legislation of Fatty Acid Metabolism 311 Ketogenesis 313 law of Ketogenesis 314 Diabetic Ketoacidosis 315 Lipids: Bioactive Lipids and Lipid-Sensing Receptors 299 nutritional Origins of Lipids three hundred Mobilization of fats shops three hundred Adipose Triglyceride Lipase three hundred Hormone-sensitive Lipase 301 Monoacylglyceride Lipase 302 Lipid Transporters and mobile Uptake of fat 303 Mitochondrial a-Oxidation Reactions 303 Minor replacement Fatty Acid Oxidation Pathway 306 Metabolism of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate 259 Sphingosine-1-Phosphate actions 260 The Glycosphingolipids 260 Sphingolipid Metabolism problems 260 scientific field 21-3 Gaucher affliction 262 291 bankruptcy 25 scientific field 21-2 Niemann-Pick illnesses 259 Lipids: Lipid Mediators of irritation 283 Bioactive Lipids and Lipid-Sensing Receptors 284 Fatty Acids and Fatty Acid–Sensing GPCRs 284 GPR120: weight problems and Diabetes 285 Oleoylethanolamide 286 organic actions of Omega-3 and Omega-6 PUFAs 286 medical field 25-3 Refsum disorder 309 bankruptcy 26 Lipids: ldl cholesterol Metabolism ldl cholesterol: Physiologically and Clinically major Lipid 323 322 Contents ix Nitrogen: Nitrogen Homeostasis and Disposal through Urea 367 scientific field 26-1 ldl cholesterol Values 323 scientific field 26-2 Familial Hypercholesterolemia 324 bankruptcy 29 Nitrogen Distribution From Biosphere 368 The Glutamate Dehydrogenase response 368 The Glutamine Synthetase response 369 Digestive Tract Nitrogen 370 Nitrogen stability 371 removing of Nitrogen from Amino Acids 371 The Urea Cycle 372 ldl cholesterol Biosynthesis 324 scientific field 26-3 Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome 325 law of ldl cholesterol Biosynthesis 327 SREBP and the legislation of mobile Sterol degrees 330 Proteolytic law of HMGR degrees 331 The usage of ldl cholesterol 331 bankruptcy 27 Lipids: Bile Acid Metabolism 339 Nitrogen: Amino Acid Metabolism scientific field 27-1 Inborn blunders In Bile Acid Synthesis 341 scientific field 27-2 Gallstones 343 medical field 27-3 Ayurvedic drugs 343 bankruptcy 28 347 Apolipoprotein A-IV and the keep an eye on of Feeding Behaviors 349 Chylomicrons 350 VLDL, IDL, and LDL 350 High-Density Lipoproteins 352 scientific field 30-1 Hartnup ailment 387 Glutamate and Glutamine Metabolism 388 Aspartate and Asparagine Metabolism 388 Alanine and the Glucose-Alanine Cycle 388 Cysteine and Methionine Metabolism 389 Bile Acids as Metabolic Regulators 344 Lipids: Lipoproteins 386 Amino Acid Uptake 387 Metabolic Classifications of Amino Acids 387 Enterohepatic movement and Bile Acid amendment 341 law of Bile Acid Homeostasis 341 rules of the Urea Cycle 375 Urea Cycle issues 375 Nitrogen Homeostasis within the mind 376 Neurotoxicity linked to Ammonia 378 bankruptcy 30 Bile Acid Synthesis Pathways 340 scientific field 29-1 Citrullinemia 374 scientific field 28-1 Tangier disorder 355 Antioxidant and anti inflammatory actions of HDL 355 healing merits of raising HDL 356 Lipoprotein Receptors 356 irregular Lipoproteins and the Lipoproteinemias 357 medical field 30-2 healing use of Asparaginase 390 medical field 30-3 Homocystinuria 391 Glycine and Serine Metabolism 393 scientific field 30-4 Glycine Decarboxylase Deficiency 394 Arginine, Ornithine, and Proline Metabolism 395 Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism 396 scientific field 30-5 Hyperphenylalaninemias: PKU Tryptophan Metabolism 398 Threonine Catabolism 398 397 x Contents Lysine Catabolism 401 Histidine Catabolism 401 Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine Catabolism: Branched-Chain Amino Acids 402 Leucine Signaling and Metabolic legislation 403 scientific field 30-6 Maple Syrup Urine disorder 405 bankruptcy 31 Nitrogen: Amino Acid–Derived Biomolecules 414 Nitric Oxide Synthesis and serve as 415 Tyrosine-Derived Neurotransmitters 415 Tryptophan-Derived Neurotransmitters 417 GABA: Inhibitory Neurotransmitter 418 Creatine and Creatinine Biosynthesis 421 Glutathione features 421 Polyamine Biosynthesis 422 medical field 33-1 Hyperbilirubinemia Classifications 453 medical field 33-2 Gilbert Syndrome 453 medical field 33-3 Crigler-Najjar Syndromes 454 medical field 33-4 Acute Intermittent Porphyria, AIP 455 bankruptcy 34 Nitrogen: Metabolic Integration bankruptcy 32 Nitrogen: Nucleotide Metabolism Abnormalities in Heme Metabolism 453 428 Nucleotide Metabolism 429 Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis 429 law of Purine Nucleotide Synthesis 429 Catabolism and Salvage of Purine Nucleotides 429 issues of Purine Metabolism 431 Pyrimidine Nucleotide Biosynthesis 431 463 significant Organ Integration of Metabolism 464 The grasp Metabolic Integrator: AMPK 464 Organ Interrelationships in Well-Fed kingdom 469 Organ Interrelationships in the course of Fasting or hunger 471 Controlling the Metabolic Regulatory Switches 472 III Cellular and Molecular Biology bankruptcy 35 medical field 32-1 Hyperuricemia and Gout 434 Chromatin: DNA constitution and Replication medical field 32-2 Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome 435 DNA constitution 482 Thermal homes of DNA 483 Chromatin constitution 484 Histone variations and Chromatin constitution 485 Eukaryotic mobile Cycles 487 Checkpoints and cellphone Cycle law 487 Tumor Suppressors and telephone Cycle rules 489 DNA Replication 489 extra actions of DNA Polymerases 491 Telomere Replication: Implications for getting older and ailment 492 Trinucleotide Repeat enlargement 494 Postreplicative amendment of DNA: Methylation 494 DNA Methylation and Epigenetics 494 medical field 32-3 serious mixed Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Scid 436 scientific field 32-4 Tumor Lysis Syndrome 436 Nucleotide Interconversions 438 bankruptcy 33 Nitrogen: Heme Metabolism Porphyrins and Heme 448 Synthesis of Porphyrins and Heme 448 legislation of Heme Biosynthesis 450 Heme Catabolism 451 447 scientific field 35-1 Huntington affliction 495 481 Translation Elongation 539 Translation Termination 540 Selenoproteins 541 Iron-Mediated regulate of Translation 541 Protein-Synthesis Inhibitors 541 Secreted and Membrane-Associated Proteins 541 Membrane focusing on through Prenylation 544 Ubiquitin and distinctive Protein Degradation 544 scientific field 35-2 Fragile X Syndrome 495 DNA Methylation and Imprinting 496 DNA Recombination 496 scientific field 35-3 Rett Syndrome 497 DNA Transposition 497 fix of broken DNA 498 Chemotherapies concentrating on Replication and the telephone cycle 498 medical field 35-4 Ataxia Telangiectasia 499 scientific field 35-5 Xeroderma Pigmentosum 500 bankruptcy 38 Glycoproteins 556 bankruptcy 36 Transcription: RNA Synthesis, Processing, and legislation 512 sessions of RNA and RNA Polymerases 513 RNA Transcription 513 Processing of RNAs 515 Splicing of RNAs 515 substitute Splicing 516 RNA enhancing 517 Catalytically lively RNAs: Ribozymes 518 law of Eukaryotic Transcription 520 Small RNAs and Posttranscriptional law 523 Translation: Protein Synthesis and amendment decision of the Genetic Code 533 features of tRNAs 533 Amino Acid Activation 534 Translation Initiation 534 medical field 37-1 eIF-2B Mutations and affliction 537 rules of Translation Initiation: The eIF-2` Kinases 537 law of eIF-4E job 538 scientific field 37-2 Wolcott-Rallinson Syndrome 539 Glycoproteins 557 Nucleotide Sugar Biosynthesis 557 Mechanism of N-Glycosylation 558 O-Glycosylation and Mucin-Type O-Glycans 559 O-Mannosylation 560 Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway 563 O-GlcNAcylation and Glucose Homeostasis 565 Lysosomal concentrating on of Enzymes 565 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins (GPI-Linkage) 565 Glycoprotein Degradation 565 medical field 38-1 I-Cell sickness 566 Carbohydrate attractiveness: Lectins 566 Congenital problems of Glycosylation 570 bankruptcy 37 xi Contents medical field 38-2 Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome II, LAD II 572 bankruptcy 39 532 Extracellular Matrix: Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans The Extracellular Matrix 580 Collagens 580 Elastin and Fibrillin 582 Fibronectin 584 scientific field 39-1 Marfan Syndrome 585 Laminin 586 Glycosaminoglycans 586 Proteoglycans 586 Glycosaminoglycan Degradation 591 579 xii Contents bankruptcy forty Mechanisms of sign Transduction 596 Digestion: Anatomy, Biochemistry, and body structure 614 scientific field 42-1 Hemochromatosis 639 function of Copper 640 Copper Metabolism 640 medical field 42-2 Menkes illness 641 scientific field 43-2 dietary Deficit issues 663 bankruptcy forty four Gut-Brain Interactions and Feeding Behaviors bankruptcy forty two position of Iron 636 Iron Metabolism 636 irregular Iron Metabolism 637 Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption 663 Protein Digestion and Peptide and Amino Acid Absorption 665 Lipid Digestion and Absorption 665 intestine Microbiota in Digestive approaches 668 Integrative Biochemistry Iron and Copper Metabolism medical field 43-1 Disturbances in Gastric Acid Homeostasis 657 gut 659 Gallbladder 661 intestine hormones and digestive approaches 661 anxious method and Digestion 661 foodstuff power 662 advent 615 restrict Endonucleases 615 Cloning DNA 615 research of Cloned items 619 DNA Sequencing 621 Diagnostic Methodologies 624 Microarray research 624 Transgenesis 626 Gene remedy 626 IV 650 assessment of Digestive method 651 Mouth and Esophagus 651 abdominal 652 Pancreas 656 bankruptcy forty-one medical field 42-3 Wilson ailment 642 bankruptcy forty three Mechanisms of sign Transduction 597 development elements 597 Cytokines and Chemokines 598 Classifications of Signal-Transducing Receptors 599 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases 599 Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases 601 Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases 601 Nonreceptor Serine/Threonine Kinases 601 G-Proteins 601 G-Protein Regulators 603 G-Protein–Coupled Receptors 603 Intracellular Hormone Receptors 605 Phospholipases and Phospholipids in sign Transduction 607 Phosphatases in sign Transduction 608 Molecular Biology instruments 635 The Gut-Brain Connection 678 Gastrointestinal Hormones and Peptides 678 Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 678 Oxyntomodulin 680 Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide 681 Cholecystokinin 681 Ghrelin 681 Obestatin 682 Pancreatic Polypeptide 682 Protein Tyrosine Tyrosine 682 Hypothalamic keep an eye on of Feeding habit 683 Neuropeptide Y 683 Agouti-Related Peptide 685 Melanin-Concentrating Hormone 685 Orexins 686 Galanin 686 Melanocortins 687 677 Contents Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript 687 Galanin-Like Peptide 687 Corticotropin-Releasing issue and comparable Peptides 688 variety 1 Diabetes: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 730 variety 2 Diabetes: Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 734 bankruptcy forty five medical field 47-1 Diabetic Ketoacidosis 735 medical field 47-2 size of HbA1C degrees 738 Adipose Tissue and weight problems: linked Metabolic Disturbances 695 Neonatal Diabetes 738 Mitochondrial disorder in weight problems and T2D 738 healing Intervention for Hyperglycemia 740 Diabetes treatments at the Horizon 740 advent to Adipose Tissue 696 legislation of Adipogenesis 697 Adipose Tissue Hormones and Cytokines 697 Inflammatory services of Adipose Tissue 701 Metabolic capabilities of Brown Adipose Tissue 701 weight problems 702 bankruptcy forty eight scientific field 45-1 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver disorder, NAFLD 704 weight problems and heart problems 704 function of intestine micro organism in weight problems 705 Is There a Viral hyperlink to weight problems?

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