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Additional info for Can You Play Cricket on Mars?: And Other Scientific Questions Answered
No. The Sun’s ‘atmosphere’ is principally hydrogen. It lies above the intense floor, which we name the ‘photosphere’, and with usual telescopes we won't see it other than whilst the photosphere is hidden via the Moon, in the course of a complete sun eclipse. we need to research it by utilizing unique apparatus, which cuts out all radiations other than these because of hydrogen. This a part of the sun surroundings is named the chromosphere. within the chromosphere we discover ‘prominences’, which back must be studied with tools in accordance with the primary of the spectroscope. They have been first noticeable in the course of overall eclipses, and have been, understandably, known as ‘Red Flames’ – yet they aren't flames; they're made of sparkling fuel. a few of them (eruptive prominences) stream and alter in a short time; others (quiescent prominences) may well dangle within the chromosphere for weeks. Well-equipped amateurs could make helpful reports of them. they're large; the Earth is tiny via comparability. What are the darkish strains within the spectrum of the sunlight, and why are they known as Fraunhofer strains? to respond to this i need to quite return to an test conducted by way of Isaac Newton, in 1666. He realised that sun is a mix of all of the shades of the rainbow, and that mild is a wave movement; the color of the sunshine depends on the wavelength, from purple (long) to violet (short). He handed a beam of solar trough a tumbler prism, generating a spectrum; the purple a part of the sunbeam used to be bent or refracted the least and violet the main, with orange, yellow, eco-friendly and blue in among. Newton by no means took this scan a lot extra, yet in England in 1803 W. H. Wollaston repeated it, permitting the daylight to move trough a slit sooner than coming into the prism. He spotted a few darkish strains, yet idea – wrongly – that they basically marked the bounds among a number of the shades. In 1814 a tender German optical employee, Josef von Fraunhofer, back performed the scan. He came across that the darkish traces have been constantly there, and not assorted in both place or depth; for instance there have been very conspicuous strains within the yellow a part of the spectrum. He didn't be aware of what triggered them, yet he mapped them rigorously, that is why they're named after him. the matter was once solved in 1859 by way of extra Germans, G. Kirchhoff and R. Bunsen. An incandescent sturdy, liquid, or fuel lower than excessive strain will provide a rainbow or ‘continuous’ spectrum, yet an incandescent gasoline less than low strain will yield disconnected shiny traces or an ‘emission’ spectrum. each one line is the trademark of 1 specific point or staff of components; for instance sodium yields a spectrum together with very well-marked yellow strains. a few components have hugely advanced spectra; that of iron, for instance, comprises millions of traces. Now examine the sunlight spectrum – a continuing rainbow, crossed through strains. The rainbow is because of the Sun’s floor (gas at excessive pressure). Above comes the sun surroundings (gas at low pressure), which may still yield shiny traces. opposed to the rainbow those strains are ‘reversed’, and seem darkish, yet their positions and intensities are unaffected, that allows you to be pointed out.